I want to write an experimental report. How should I go about it? What kind of structure should I follow? Also, can you recommend some writing books or material?
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Asked on 16 Sep, To write any research paper, you must first read several published papers. Each type of scholarly article is written in a specific style, and you need to understand and be able to write in that style. Since you are planning to write an experimental report or a lab report, you should read several such published reports. Once you are familiar with this kind of article, you will have a clear idea of how to write your paper. Generally, an experimental paper or an experimental report is structured as follows:.
Introduction: The introduction states the problem and purpose of the study and frames the research question. There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:. Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.
Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science , Magenta, S. Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. New York: Columbia University Press. Scarlet, S. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, Unfortunately, they're all the same page. Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: "When I put the hamster in a cage with the other animals, the little mammals began to play.
Instead of: The rats were injected with the drug. Temperature has an effect on the reaction. Temperature affects the reaction. I used solutions in various concentrations. Less food can't count numbers of food Fewer animals can count numbers of animals. A large amount of food can't count them A large number of animals can count them. The erythrocytes, which are in the blood, contain hemoglobin. The erythrocytes that are in the blood contain hemoglobin. This sentence implies that there are erythrocytes elsewhere that don't contain hemoglobin. Write at a level that's appropriate for your audience.
Use the active voice. It's clearer and more concise than the passive voice. Instead of: An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured. Write: The rats ate more and gained weight. Instead of: It is thought Write: I think. Instead of: The samples were analyzed Write: I analyzed the samples. Instead of: take into consideration Write: consider. Use strong verbs instead of "to be".
Instead of: The enzyme was found to be the active agent in catalyzing Write: The enzyme catalyzed I know there are professors in this country who 'ligate' arteries. Improved example: Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure.
Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope.
Consider the following two examples:. The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages Fig. The results of the germination experiment Fig. Strategy for Writing the Results Section. Frequently asked questions FAQs. What are the "results"? Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question.
In general, the answer is the " key result". The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, " Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors?
You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples mean, SD, n, range, etc and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships.
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For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that "groups A and B were significantly different". How are they different? How much are they different?
See also below about use of the word " significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.
Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures:. The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.
nopealaihdutus.com/rypyl-lg-g7-location.php The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question s investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information.
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Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid :. Statistical test summaries test name, p- value are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding if statistical tests are being used in your course. This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance test statistic and DF are optional.
For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result in blue and your statistical conclusion shown in red as follows:. If the summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen:.
Note that the report of the key result shown in blue would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure.
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Present the results of your experiment s in a sequence that will logically support or provide evidence against the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.
Report negative results - they are important! If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study.