Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition
You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words You need to cite:. Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved , You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your notes and bibliography To cite a source, a small superscript raised number is placed after each in-text reference.
Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order For example:.
Mooney found that "domestic violence has, since the s, been increasingly recognized as a social problem. Each numbered reference then corresponds to a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by a period. Citations in notes are single-spaced unless otherwise instructed , but there is a double space between entries.
How Do I Format the Main Text in Turabian/Chicago Style? | CMOS Shop Talk
The first line is indented. Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography.
This list must include all references cited in the text of your paper In the bibliography, entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names. If no author or editor is provided, the work's title may be used instead Entries are double-spaced , but single-spacing is used within each entry.
The second and subsequent lines are indented. When the bibliography includes multiple entries by the same author listed together, a 3-em dash may be used to replace the author's name after the first entry Page numbers should be placed in the header of the first page of text, beginning with number 1. Continue your page numbers till the end of your bibliography.
Sample Title Pages
Longer publications should use Subheadings. If your paper has a subtitle, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the next line.
Center your name directly under the title. Do not bold, underline, or otherwise decorate your title.
Do not put a page number on your cover page and do not include it in your page count total. Names and Numbers Use the full name of any person or agency the first time you reference them in a paper. For agencies, include the acronym in parentheses after the full name when first used, e.
Write out any numbers lower than Place the note number at the end of the sentence in which the reference occurs and after any punctuation; remember to superscript it.
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Times New Roman font. Do not embolden the title. All notes should be typed in 12pt font using Times New Roman. Within the notes themselves, numbers are full-sized, and are followed by a period. Other lines will be flushed left this formatting is opposite of the bibliography.
Notes should be typed using single-space, but different notes should contain a space between them. Only use Arabic numerals, not Roman.
Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style
Never reuse a number. Use a shortened citation for sources you refer to more than once. If citing multiple sources in a single note, separate each citation with a semicolon.